Edward Baikov. Coevolutional ground of being in the world
COEVOLUTIONAL GROUND OF BEING IN THE WORLD
Our objective reality and its realization is tried to be illustrated in the given work with the help of the theory of coevolution i.e. simultaneous development of systems in the Universe. At the same time the interrelated development of any systems takes place always and everywhere on the synergistic basis. Moreover, it has dialectically conflicting nature both antagonistic and nonantagonistic. Intellect, society, human being actively interferes in coevolutional processes at the defined stage of a matter’s development. As a consequence of it, coevolution of natural and social systems takes on complementary vector.
Key words: coevolution, self-organization, synergistic systems, dissipated structures, biosociosystem
Coevolution is a simultaneous being (existence, cooperation and development) of two or more systems. It is considered as a versatile phenomenon, attributively peculiar to the substance at its any development stage: before organic, prebiotic dissipative, organic biological and biosocial wise. It is very important to single out both coherence of systems and correlation of many processes taking place in all structural levels. Therein the coevolution is not only a fundamental feature of substance, inherent in its development, but also a general principal and attribute of the essence of being in the world. At the same time the coevolution is considered as dialectically discrepant condition and process, bearing dual characteristics – antagonistic and no antagonistic.
One of the main principles of development is the dialectical contradictoriness one (unity and conflict of opposites). It is supposed that any development (including coevolution) is possible only as reciprocal action of opposite tendencies that is OBLIGATORY presence of contradictions between developing objects, sides, phenomena… Contradiction here is not condition, but it is a process, which conduces to either harmony or disharmony (the second one is considered to be its last form – conflict). Thus, coevolution is supposed to have either no antagonistic or antagonistic feature of coexistence in systems’ joint development, but it is always their interaction. Systems can annihilate each other in no antagonistic interaction or this process will lead to elimination of one of them. In this case too we can surely postulate their coevolution, but with negative meaning.
Dual contradiction is right a progress, activity, movement, development, evolution, and in the final analysis coevolution, because opposites suppose each other.
According to coevolution’s conception, systems interact (coexist and develop) in presocial stages of substance’s development in the form of either antagonism (irreconcilable contradictions), or symbiosis (comparative contradictions).The symbiotic interaction is put into effect in three forms: commensalism, mutualism, synoikia; antagonistic one also is in three forms: parasitism, carnivorism, amensalism.
There should be singled out the stage of the coevolution, in which mind, society, and human as a wise biosocial being actively interfere in the processes and conditions of the coevolutional interaction. As a result of coevolution mediation by social being peculiarities, its character and content as a no antagonistic coexistence, harmonic cooperation, joint and coherent development of elements and subsystems of common biosociosystem (“human-society-nature” system) is not only POSSIBILITY, but also become NECESSITY, and in the final turns into FUNDAMENTAL NECESSITY of biosocial systems’ development.
The coevolutional processes in our planet took place step-by-step. The FIRST stage is the prehistory of life beginnings and its needs. During this stage the development has a linear and undifferentiated character, mainly in elementary and atomic levels. Then the material systems, interacting with each other, have an effect, under the influence of which there take place spontaneous residual changes in separate nonequilibrium systems. There appear dissipative structures, which sharply change their order in bifurcation points. In these kind of structures there appear a “recognition” effect, which expresses the aim of elements and systems to cooperation.
Subsequently the divergence of material systems happens there. Part of them form the geological cover – the earth crust, that is crystallize. Another part, “promising one”, having the molecular interaction as its basis, reduces to the appearance of life phenomenon and open nonequilibrium biological systems.
The multycomponent stochastic systems with composition chaos (MSSCC) refer to the systems with dissipative structures. The MSSCC are natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons, multycomponent aqueous solutions, soils, biogeocenosis, biopolymers, biological liquids, metabolism products, interstellar intergalactic clouds with organic matters, Metagalaxy… “MSSCC – permolecular systems – are the structure forming part of the Universe and the main components of cosmic and terrestrial, abiogenous and biogenic matters” [1, 20].
Evolution of inert matter (=bone stock), biological structures and social forms of matter movement unfolds by three main vectors: expansion, diversity and complexification. Moreover, the complexification is characterized by self-organization appearance and coherent-cooperative character of material systems’ elements relationship.
Self-organization is characterized by not only complexification of structure and its better adaptability to the environment around, but also by enlargement of systems’ order, inner integrity and organization. “…Self-organizing systems have the ability to change their data characteristics and structures of functional relationships in whole in compliance with changeable external conditions” [2, 134].
There is no self-organization without development, while the development has the coevolutional character. Self-motion, self-development serve as a basis and motive power of the system’s self-organization. The source of self-motion is inner and external contradictions. The system organizes itself into the open system with ordered structure reacting to the external actions and changeable character of inner relationships. “… The concept “self-organization” reflects the special peculiarities of dynamical systems’ existence, which are accompanied with their ascension to a higher level of complicacy and systemic order or material organization” [3, 185]. Dissipative structures, with their self-organization, coming into being constantly interchange with environment. They absorb stream of substance, energy and information, giving their entropy, thus they accomplish their integrity.
A new stage of coevolution is synergistic interrelation of dissipative structures’ elements, which display their ability to interaction, cooperation under the influence of power from without. The new stage originates from appearance of dissipative, including prebiotic structures, which are capable to self-organization and cooperation. The coherent cooperation leads to the further structure genesis and systemic complication. On the basis of molecular substance development there appear macromolecules, which are capable to display their flexibility in changing of properties and structure under the influence of power from without. They are become the basis of construction of mega molecules’ – polymers.
The SECOND STAGE is connected straight with the origin of life. There appears prebiotic structure on the basis of carbides – phase-solitary systems built of polymers and capable of interrelation. Their main characteristic is self-organization.
All animate beings are as biochips. “… According to modern conception, cellular plasma itself is a liquid crystal” [4, 458]. In other words the coevolutional synthesis of organic and inorganic matters is found everywhere in biota. Probably prelife appeared in the form of crystals which involve the organic component. Afterwards these coevolutionary formation evolving created genuine life – different and permanently becoming sophisticated organisms on the basis of liquid crystals.
Thus, biopolymers, coacervates and viruses serve as a precursor of life. Right on the ground of the self-organized structures (preorganisms) there appears the life – the first cell, the basis of biological systems, characterized by high level of self-organization (self-replication) and occurrence of needs. And there appear three features of living systems: integrative complexity, self-organization and asymmetry. Then according to evolutional processes there appear unicellular and after that multicellular organisms.
Nonequilibrium living systems need regular inflow of free energy, matter, information, making reciprocal exchange with environment. These processes are realized with the help of metabolic mechanism – anabolism, intermediate metabolism and catabolism of incoming matters.
Existence of any living systems (organisms and population) is in special system formations – biogeocenosis (ecosystems), in which individual species, populations, their sorts, species and communities are the elements and subsystems. Living matter in the whole, spread on the Earth from its early periods of evolution, took shape of one giant organism. [5, 117].
The phenomenon of coevolution becomes apparent depending organisms on each other, also on incoming energy from without, from abiotic environment.
The THIRD STAGE is the appearance of social form of matter movement –a human as a wise biosociolal being.
The human society riches the level of determinative element in biosocial system in this stage. As a result of anthropogenic influence on the environment there appear a lot of ecological problems, which are snowballing and leading the humanity and biosphere to possible disaster.
The phenomenon of coevolution on this stage includes not only cooperative interrelation of biosphere with nonorganic systems, also organisms and ecosystems with each other, but also interdependent, coherent development of society and nature, anthroposphere and biogeosphere in their dialectical discrepancy. The coevolutional grounds of development within the society.
In comparison with dual character of being of wiseless living organisms, becoming apparent in the dialectical discrepancy, conflict – on the one hand, and cooperation and coordination – on the other hand, the principle of cooperation and integration, coevolution – joint, coherent and interdependent development of biosocial systems, in their nonantagonistic being become the predominant type of cooperation of complex systems (as human, society, cars, cybernetic equipments, production complexes, in the whole «society-technics-nature» system). «Interaction of dead matters of nature includes harmony and conflict as well; interaction of living beings includes conscious and unconscious cooperation, and also conscious and unconscious struggle. Even in the plant kingdom and animality we can see not only one-sided «struggle» [7, 36].
Thus, the coevolution is realized, first of all, as a common material ground for all systems, basis for their further development; secondly, as a process of permanent coherent and cooperative being of these systems.
Hence, interrelationship between society and nature is possible in two directions: either joint and nonantagonistic development (cooperative evolution), which leads to mutual progress where a human ennobles and takes care of the nature ; or exploitative treatment on the principles of antagonism, which leads to the large-scale destruction of ecosystem as a result of resources use and total pollution of the environment with wastage and waste products of society, and in the final, - to regress and destruction of both important parts of biosociosystems.
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© Edward Baikov, text, 2009
© Bookstall, publication, 2015